America’s 1st Trail of Tears and Roots Remedies Recipes

America’s “First Trail of Tears”

America’s First “Trail of Tears” The Story of The Choctaw-Apache Tribe of Louisiana, Toledo Bend Lake

  • Part I – Roots (290 years)
  • Part II- Remedies
  • Part III – Recipes
  • Genealogy of Tribal Families

America’s First “Trail of Tears,”  The story of the Choctaw-Apache Tribe of Louisiana, preserves the history, heritage, indigenous cures and historic recipes of the original tribal families.

This book reveals a slice of little-known American history of the Los Adaes natives, who were forcibly marched by armed Spanish soldiers from their homeland. In 1773, the Spanish government abandoned  Los Adaes, its military outpost and mission located at present-day Robeline, Louisiana, six miles from Natchitoches.

Los Adaes served as the first capital of Spanish Texas (1729-1773) and was located 30 miles east of the Sabine River in northwestern Louisiana.The families of Los Adaes, freed Apache slaves who intermarried with the French and Spanish locals, were ordered to   leave in five days  by the Spanish Governor. They left their crops in the fields and began a 400 mile trek to San Antonio. Many men, women and children died on this first “Trail of Tears”.

Two months later, the  refugee survivors arrived in San Antonio without a place to settle. A young Spanish  soldier,  Antonio Gil Y’barbo (1729-1809), who was born at Los Adaes and  married to a part-Indian wife, befriended them. He received permission from the Spanish Government to take charge of the people. He  eventually was able to move them back toward their homeland, settling  them for over 50 years  in Nacogdoches, Texas. New  generations were born, including the Choctaw great grandmother of the three book authors, Dorsey Ebarb Bronson, Mary Meshell Carlin and Danny Ebarb.

After the death of Y’barbo, in 1850 his grandson, Alcario Ebarb, led the descendants of  Los Adaes natives  back to their  ancestral homeland in the piney woods wilderness of northwestern Louisiana near modern-day Toledo Bend Reservoir. The story of the Choctaw-Apache Tribe of Louisiana, in addition to telling the shameful tale of a suffering people, captures in photographs how they lived in their ancient land. The book also features the life-saving herbs and plants and many of their historic made-from-scratch recipes.

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Dorsey Ebarb Bronson

About the Book

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In 1773, the people of Los  Adaes, freed Apache slaves who intermarried with French and Spanish families were forcibly marched by Spanish armed soldiers from their homeland around Natchitoches, Louisiana to San Antonio. Many men, women and children died on the 400 mile journey on foot. They were guarded by cannons drawn by bison, to keep them from running away.


Choctaw-Apache Indians survived on healing cures they concocted from herbs found growing wild. America’s “First Trail of Tears” new book documents a hundred healing cures used as medicine for every ailment including pneumonia, childbirth and snake bites.


Fry Bread is an ancient Native American dish made from a few simple ingredients mostly from flour and lard. A Fry Bread recipe is featured among the historic made-from-scratch dishes in America’s First “Trail of Tears. The ancestral recipes were made and photographed by co-author Dorsey Ebarb Bronson.

About the Authors

Dorsey Ebarb Bronson, is pictured in 2016 on a book research field trip . In 1942, she was delivered by a midwife at her grandparents home which had no electricity. Her grandparents were Christina Meshell Sepulvado (1896-1984)and Dora Sepulvado (1893 - 1986). At six, she picked cotton for her grandparents on their Ebarb, Louisiana homeland. Memories of her growing up years are intertwined in this book, America’s First “Trail of Tears” and her first book Louisiana Cooking By Native American Choctaw-Apache. She is a direct descendant of Los Adaes natives.
Mary Meshell Carlin co-authors America’s First “Trail of Tears”, sharing her passion for researching the family histories of the Choctaw-Apache ancestors in the context of challenging times amidst changing historical influences in their Native territories. She is a proud member of the Choctaw-Apache Tribe of Ebarb. After graduating from Ebarb High School she earned multiple degrees from L.S.U. Baton Rough. She taught children with special needs for 37 years in Livingston Parish.
Matthew Carlin is a brilliant storyteller, making history come alive in his description of the people of the Choctaw-Apache Tribe of Ebarb, Louisiana. He speaks eloquently, writing in America’s First “Trail of Tears” : “The Endurance of a People,” And “Into the “No Man’s Land.” He is a descendant of the Los Adaes Native people.
Danny Ebarb an elected member of the Choctaw-Apache Council and chairman of the Federal Recognition Committee , is a co-author of America’s First “Trail of Tears”. He is pictured wearing his Grandfather Dora Sepulvado’s (1894-1987) hat.